Math & Science Day
How a trip to an
amusement park ties into the Virginia Standards of Learning, SOL's,
for all grades.
This page was compiled by the
Science Museum of Virginia.
Activities in the park can expand the math and science education
of your our students, but it depends on teachers to provide proper
assistance and direction. Listed below are some of the standards of
learning that can be meet or supported at Math & Science Day.
Virginia Standards of Learning
 Science
Click on the subject area below to go to the related science
sol's.
Kindergarten,
First
Grade, Second
Grade, Third
Grade, Forth
Grade, Fifth
Grade, Sixth
Grade, Life
Science, Physical
Science, Earth
Science, Biology,
Physics
Virginia Standards of
Learning  Mathematics
Kindergarten,
First
Grade, Second
Grade, Third
Grade, Forth
Grade, Fifth
Grade, Sixth
Grade, Seventh
Grade, Eighth
Grade, Algebra
1, Geometry,
Algebra
2, Trigonometry
Go to the
Virginia Instructors of Physics Home page
Kindergarten
K.1 The student will
plan and conduct investigations in which: Basic properties of
objects are identified by direct observation Observations are
made from multiple positions to achieve different perspectives A
set of objects is sequenced according to size A set of objects is
separated into two groups based on a single physical attribute
Picture and bar graphs are constructed using 10 or fewer units
Nonstandard units are used to measure common objects An unseen
member in a sequence of objects is predicted A question is
developed from one or more observations Objects are described
both pictorially and verbally Unusual or unexpected results in an
activity are recognized.
K.9 The student will
investigate and understand that change occurs over time, and rates
may be fast or slow. Key concepts include: Natural and humanmade
things may change over time Changes can be noted and measured.
Go
to the top of the page
First Grade
 1.1 The student will plan
and conduct investigations in which: Differences in physical
properties are observed using the senses and simple instruments to
enhance observations (magnifying glass) Objects or events are
classified and arranged according to attributes or properties
Observations and data are communicated orally and with simple
graphs, pictures, written statements, and numbers Length, height,
weight, size, and volume are measured using standard and
nonstandard units Inferences are made and conclusions are drawn
about familiar objects and events Predictions are not based on
random guesses Simple experiments are conducted to answer
questions. Go
to the top of the page
Second Grade
2.1 The student will
plan and conduct investigations in which: Observations are
repeated to improve accuracy Two or more attributes are used to
classify items Pictures and bar graphs are constructed using
numbered axes Linear, volume, temperature, and mass measurements
are made in metric (centimeters, meters, liters, degrees Celsius,
grams, kilograms) and standard English units (inches, feet, yards,
pints, quarts, gallons, degrees Fahrenheit, ounces, pounds)
Observation is differentiated from personal interpretation, and
conclusions are drawn based on observations Simple physical
models are constructed Conditions that influence a change are
defined Unexpected or unusual quantitative data are recognized.
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Third Grade
3.1 The student will
plan and conduct investigations in which: Questions are developed
to formulate hypotheses Predictions and observations are made
Data are gathered, charted, and graphed Objects with similar
characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two
subsets Inferences are made and conclusions are drawn Natural
events are sequenced chronologically Length is measured to the
nearest centimeter Weight is measured to the nearest gram Volume
is measured to the nearest milliliter and liter Temperature is
measured to the nearest degree Celsius Time is measured to the
nearest minute. Go
to the top of the page
Fourth Grade
4.1 The student will
plan and conduct investigations in which: Distinctions are made
among observations, conclusions (inferences), and predictions
Data are classified to create frequency distributions
Arithmetical procedures are used to determine statistical means
Appropriate metric measures are used to collect, record, and
report data Appropriate instruments are selected to measure
linear distance, volume, mass, and temperature Predictions are
made based on data from picture graphs, bar graphs, and basic line
graphs Hypotheses are formulated based on cause and effect
relationships Variables that must be held constant in an
experimental situation are defined Numerical data that are
contradictory or unusual in experimental results are recognized.
4.3 The student will
investigate and understand how plants and animals in an ecosystem
interact with one another and the nonliving environment. Key
concepts include: Behavioral and structural adaptations
Organization of communities Flow of energy through food webs
Habitats and niches Life cycles Influence of human activity on
ecosystems.
4.6 The student will
investigate and understand that energy is needed to do work and
that machines make work easier. Key concepts include:
 Energy forms (electrical. mechanical, and chemical energy)
Potential and kinetic energy Simple and complex machines
Efficiency, friction, and inertia. Go
to the top of the page
Fifth
Grade
5.1 The student will
plan and conduct investigations in which: Appropriate instruments
are selected and used for making quantitative observations of
length, mass, volume, and elapsed time Rocks, minerals, and
organisms are identified using a classification key Data are
collected, recorded, and reported using the appropriate graphical
representation (graphs, charts, diagrams) Accurate measurements
are made using basic tools (thermometer, meter stick, balance,
graduated cylinder) Predictions are made using patterns, and
simple graphical data are extrapolated Basic computation is used
to estimate volume, mass, and quantity. Go
to the top of the page
Sixth
Grade
6.1 The student will
plan and conduct investigations in which: Observations are made
involving fine discrimination between similar objects and
organisms A classification system is developed based on multiple
attributes Differences in descriptions and working definitions
are made Precise and approximate measures are recorded Ratio,
proportion, and scale models are used to estimate distance,
volume, and quantity Hypotheses are stated in ways that identify
the independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables
A method is devised to test the validity of predictions and
inferences One variable is manipulated over time with many
repeated trials Data are collected, recorded, and reported using
appropriate metric measurement Data are organized and
communicated through graphical representation (graphs, charts, and
diagrams) Models are designed to explain a sequence Quantitative
data are interpreted in terms of basic mathematical relationships
(direct proportionality).
6.3 The student will
investigate and understand that organisms perform life processes
that are essential to survive and perpetuate the species. Key
concepts include:
 Energy transformation (from food or photosynthesis)
 Respiration, movement, waste removal, growth, irritability
(response), and reproduction.
6.6 The student will
investigate and understand sources of energy and their
transformations. Key concepts include: Potential and kinetic
energy Energy sources (fossil fuels, wood, wind, water, solar,
and nuclear power)
 Energy transformations (mechanical to electrical,
electrical to heat/light, chemical to light, and chemical to
electrical/light). Go
to the top of the page
Life
Science
LS.4 The student will
investigate and understand that the basic needs of organisms must
be met in order to carry out life processes. Key concepts include:
Plant needs (light and energy sources, water, gases, nutrients)
Animal needs (food, water, gases, shelter, space)
 Factors that influence life processes.
LS.6 The student will
investigate and understand the basic physical and chemical
processes of photosynthesis and its importance to plant and animal
life. Key concepts include:
 Energy transfer between sunlight and chlorophyll
Transformation of water and carbon dioxide into sugar, water,
and oxygen
 Photosynthesis as the foundation of food webs.
LS.7 The student will
investigate and understand that organisms within an ecosystem are
dependent on one another and on nonliving components of the
environment. Key concepts include:
 Interactions resulting in a flow of energy and matter
throughout the system Complex relationships in terrestrial,
freshwater, and marine ecosystems
 Energy flow in food chains, food webs, and food pyramids.
Go
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Physical
Science
PS. 1 The student
will plan and conduct investigations in which:
 Length, mass, volume, density, temperature, weight, and
force are accurately measured and reported using the SI
(International System of Units)
 Triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric
rulers, graduated cylinders, and spring scales are used to
gather data
 Data from experiments are recorded and interpreted from
bar, line, and circle graphs Research skills are utilized
using a variety of resources Independent and dependent
variables, constants, controls, and repeated trials are
identified Valid conclusions are made after analyzing data
Research methods are used to investigate global environmental
concerns
 Experimental results are presented in appropriate written
form.
PS.5 The student will
investigate and understand changes in matter and the relationship
of these changes to the Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy.
Key concepts include:
 Physical changes (effect of temperature on state, particle
size on solubility, and temperature on solubility) Nuclear
reactions (products of fusion and fission and their effects on
human beings and the environment)
 Chemical changes (types of reactions, reactants and
products, and balanced equations).
PS.6 The student will
investigate and understand states and forms of energy and how
energy is transferred and transformed. Key concepts include:
 Potential and kinetic energy Mechanical, chemical, and
electrical energy
 Heat, light, sound.
PS. 10 The student will
investigate and understand scientific principles and technological
applications of work, force, and motion. Key concepts include:
 Work, force, mechanical advantage, efficiency, power,
horsepower, gravitational force, speed/velocity, mass/weight,
Newton's three laws of motion, acceleration
 Applications (simple machines, compound machines, powered
vehicles, rockets, restraining devices, projectiles). Go
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Earth
Science
ES. 1 The student
will plan and conduct investigations in which:
 Volume, area, mass. elapsed time, direction, temperature,
pressure, distance, density, and changes in elevation/depth are
calculated utilizing the most appropriate tools
 Technologies, including computers, are used to collect,
analyze, and report data and to demonstrate concepts and
simulate experimental conditions
 Scales, diagrams, maps, charts, graphs, tables, and
profiles are constructed and interpreted
 A scientific viewpoint is constructed and defended.
Go
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Biology
BIO.9 The student
will investigate and understand dynamic equilibrium within
populations, communities, and ecosystems. Key concepts include:
 Analysis of interactions within and among populations
including carrying capacities, limiting factors, and growth
curves
 Comparison of nutrient cycling with energy flow through
ecosystems Research on succession patterns in ecosystems The
impact of humans on the natural world
 Analysis of local ecosystems where applicable. Go
to the top of the page
Physics
PH. 1 The student
will investigate and understand how to plan and conduct
investigations in which:
 The system is defined
 Instruments are selected and used to extend observations
and measurements of mass, volume, temperature, heat exchange,
energy transformations, motion, fields, and electric
charge
 Information is recorded and presented in an organized
format Metric units are used in all measurements and
calculations The limitations of the experimental apparatus and
design are recognized
 The limitations of measured quantities through the
appropriate use of significant figures or error ranges are
recognized
 Data gathered from nonSI instruments are incorporated
through appropriate conversions.
PH. 2 The student will
investigate and understand the interrelationships among mass,
distance, force, and time through mathematical and experimental
processes. Key concepts include:
 Linear motion Uniform circular motion Curvilinear motion
Newton's laws of motion Gravitation Celestial mechanics
 Work, power, and energy.
PH.6 The student will
investigate and understand that quantities including mass, energy,
momentum, and charge are conserved. Key concepts include:
 Kinetic and potential energy Elastic and inelastic
collisions
 Electric power and circuit design.
PH.8 The student will
investigate and understand that energy can be transferred and
transformed to provide usable work. Key concepts include:
 Transformation of energy among forms, including mechanical,
thermal, electrical, gravitational, chemical, and nuclear
 Efficiency of systems. Go
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Virginia Standards of Learning 
Mathematics
Kindergarten
K.16 The student will
gather data relating to familiar experiences by counting and
tallying.
K.17 The student will
display objects and information, using object and pictorial graphs
and tables.
K.20 The student will
identify, describe, and extend a repeating relationship (pattern)
found in common objects, sounds, and movements. Go
to the top of the page
First Grade
1.12 The student will
use nonstandard units to measure length and weight.
1.18 The student will
investigate. identify, and describe various forms of data
collection in his/her world (e.g., recording daily temperature,
lunch count, attendance, and favorite ice cream). Go
to the top of the page
Second
Grade
2.12 The student will
estimate and then use a ruler to make linear measurements to the
nearest centimeter and inch, including the distance around a
polygon (determine perimeter).
2.15 The student will
estimate and then determine weight/mass of familiar objects in
pounds and/or kilograms, using a scale. Go
to the top of the page
Third
Grade
3.14 The student will
estimate and then use actual measuring devices with metric and
U.S. Customary units to measure lengthinches, feet, yards,
centimeters, and meters; liquid volumecups, pints, quarts,
gallons, and liters; and weight/massounces, pounds, grams, and
kilograms.
3.19 The student will
identify and draw representations of line segments and angles,
using a ruler or straightedge.
3.21 The student, given
grid paper, will collect data on a given topic of his/her choice
and construct a bar graph showing the results. A title and key
will be included. Go
to the top of the page
Fourth
Grade
4.11
The student will estimate and measure weight/mass
using actual measuring devices and express the results in both
metric and U.S. Customary units, including ounces, pounds, grams,
and kilograms; and
 estimate the conversion of ounces and grams and pounds and
kilograms, using approximate comparisons ( I ounce is about 28
grams. or I gram is about the weight of a paper clip; I
kilogram is a little more than 2 pounds).*
 The intent of this standard is for students to make
"ballpark" comparisons and not to memorize conversion factors
between U.S. and metric units. Go
to the top of the page
4.12 The student will
 estimate and measure length using actual measuring devices
and describe the results in both metric and U.S. Customary
units, including part of an inch ( 1/2. 1/4, and 1/8), inches,
feet, yards, millimeters, centimeters, and meters; and
 estimate the conversion of inches and centimeters, yards
and meters, and miles and kilometers, using approximate
comparisons ( I inch is about 2.5 centimeters, I meter is a
little longer than I yard, I mile is slightly farther than 1.5
kilometers, or I kilometer is slightly farther than half a
mile).*
 The intent of this standard is for students to make
"ballpark" comparisons and not to memorize conversion factors
between U.S. and metric units.
4.16 The student will
identify and draw representations of points, lines, line segments,
rays, and angles, using a straightedge or ruler.
4.17 The student will
identify lines which illustrate intersection, parallelism, and
perpendicularity.
4.19 The student will
collect, organize, and display data in line and bar graphs with
scale increments of one or greater than one. Go
to the top of the page
Fifth
Grade
5.9 The student will
identify and describe the diameter, radius, chord, and
circumference of a circle.
5.11 The student will
choose an appropriate measuring device and unit of measure to
solve problems involving measurement of
 lengthpart of an inch (1/2, 1/4, and 1/8), inches, feet,
yards, miles, millimeters, centimeters, meters, and
kilometers;
 weight/massounces, pounds, tons, grams, and
kilograms;
 liquid volumecups, pints, quarts, gallons, milliliters,
and liters;
 areasquare units
 temperatureCelsius and Fahrenheit units. Problems also
will include estimating the conversion of Celsius and
Fahrenheit units relative to familiar situations (water freezes
at 0°C and 32°F, water boils at 100°C and
212°F, normal body temperature is about 37°C and
98.6°F).
5.14 The student will
measure and draw right, acute, and obtuse angles and triangles,
using appropriate tools.
5.20 The student will
 investigate and describe the concept of variable;
 use a variable to represent a given verbal quantitative
expression, involving one operation; and
 write an open sentence, using a variable to represent a
given mathematical relationship. Go
to the top of the page
Sixth
Grade
6.6 The student will
 solve problems that involve addition, subtraction, and/or
multiplication with fractions and mixed numbers, with and
without regrouping, that include like and unlike denominators
of 12 or less and express their answers in simplest form;
and
 find the quotient, given a dividend expressed as a decimal
through thousandths and a divisor expressed as a decimal to
thousandths with exactly one nonzero digit. For divisors with
more than one nonzero digit, estimation and calculators will
be used.
6.7 The student will use
estimation strategies to solve multistep practical problems
involving whole numbers, decimals, and fractions.
6.8 The student will solve
multistep consumer application problems involving fractions and
decimals and present data and conclusions in paragraphs, tables,
or graphs.
6.9 The student will
compare and convert units of measures for length, weight/mass, and
volume within the U.S. Customary system and within the metric
system and estimate conversions between units in each system:
 lengthpart of an inch (1/2, 1/4, and 1/8), inches, feet,
yards, miles, millimeters, centimeters, meters, and
kilometers;
 weight/massounces, pounds, tons, grams, and
kilograms;
 liquid volumecups, pints, quarts, gallons, milliliters,
and liters; and
 areasquare units.
 The intent of this standard is for students to make
"ballpark" comparisons and not to memorize conversion factors
between U.S. and metric units.
6.10 The student will
estimate and then determine length, weight/mass, area, and liquid
volume/capacity, using standard and nonstandard units of
measure.
6.12 The student will
create and solve problems by finding the circumference and/or area
of a circle when given the diameter or radius. Using concrete
materials or computer models, the student will derive
approximations for pi from measurements for circumference and
diameter.
6.13 The student will
estimate angle measures using 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and 180
degrees as referents and use the appropriate tools to measure the
given angles.
6.18 The student, given a
problem situation, will collect, analyze, display, and interpret
data in a variety of graphical methods, including line, bar, and
circle graphs and stemandleaf and box andwhisker plots. Circle
graphs will be limited to halves, fourths, and eighths.
6.19 The student will
describe the mean, median, and mode as measures of central
tendency and determine their meaning for a set of data. Go
to the top of the page
7th
Grade
7.7 The student will
use proportions to solve practical problems, including scale
drawings that contain whole numbers, fractions, decimals, and
percents.
7.19 The student will
create and solve problems involving the mean, median, mode, and
range of a set of data.
7.23 The student will write
verbal expressions/sentences as algebraic expressions/equations.
Go
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Eighth
Grade
8.1 The student will
use proportions to solve scalemodel problems with fractions and
decimals.
8.4 The student will solve
practical problems involving whole numbers, integers, and rational
numbers, including percents. Problems will be of varying
complexities, involving reallife data.
8.18 The student will
describe and represent relations using tables, graphs, and rules.
Go
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Algebra
I
A.1 The student will
solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, solve
literal equations (formulas) for a given variable and apply these
skills to solve practical problems. Graphing calculators will be
used to confirm algebraic solutions.
A.2 The student will
represent verbal quantitative situations algebraically and
evaluate these expressions for given replacement values of the
variables. Students will choose an appropriate computational
technique, such as mental mathematics, calculator, or paper and
pencil.
A.4 The student will use
matrices to organize and manipulate data, including matrix
addition subtraction, and scalar multiplication. Data will arise
from business, industrial, and consumer situations.
A.5 The student will
analyze a given set of data for the existence of a pattern,
represent the pattern algebraically and graphically, if possible,
and determine if the relation is a function.
A.6 The student will
select, justify, and apply an appropriate technique to graph a
linear function in two variables. Techniques will include
slopeintercept, x and yintercepts, graphing by transformation,
and the use of the graphing calculator.
A.17 The student will,
given a set of data points, write an equation for a line of best
fit, using the median fit method, and use the equation to make
predictions. Go
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Geometry
G.2 The student will
use pictorial representations, including computer software and
coordinate methods to solve problems involving symmetry and
transformation. This will include
 using formulas for finding distance, midpoint, and
slope;
 investigating and determining whether a figure is symmetric
with respect to a line or a point; and
 determining whether a figure has been translated,
reflected, or rotated.
G.7 The student will solve
practical problems involving right triangles by using the
Pythagorean Theorem and its converse, properties of special right
triangles, and right triangle trigonometry. Calculators will be
used to solve problems and find decimal approximations for the
solutions.
G.10 The student will
investigate and use the properties of angles, arcs, chords,
tangents, and secants to solve problems involving circles.
Problems will include finding the area of a sector and
applications of architecture, art, and construction. Go
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Algebra
II
AII.8 The student
will recognize multiple representations of functions (linear,
quadratic, absolute value, step, and exponential functions) and
convert between a graph, a table, and symbolic form. A
transformational approach to graphing will be employed through the
use of graphing calculators.
AII.10 The student will
investigate and describe the relationships between the solution of
an equation, zero of a function, xintercept of a graph, and
factors of a polynomial expression through the use of graphs.
AII.l9 The student will
collect and analyze data to make predictions, write equations, and
solve practical problems. Graphing calculators will be used to
investigate scatter plots to determine the equation for a curve of
best fit. Go
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Trigonometry
T.3 The student will
find the values of the trigonometric functions of the special
angles and their related angles as found in the unit circle
without the aid of a calculating utility. This will include
converting radians to degrees and vice versa.
T.4 The student will use a
calculator to find the value of any trigonometric function and
inverse trigonometric function.
T.8 The student will solve
trigonometric equations that include both infinite solutions and
restricted domain solutions and solve basic trigonometric
inequalities. Graphing utilities will be used to solve equations,
to check for reasonable
